Born on 23 October 1844 in Sambir. Studied law at the Lviv University and at the Law Department of the Jagiellonian University. Obtained the degree of a Doctor of Law in 1869, and in 1871 a post-doctoral degree for his treatises: The main principles of marital law in the Catholic church from a philosophical perspective and Hugo Grotius’ principles of the right to intervene from the perspective of modern science of philosophical and positive law of nations. In 1872, he became associate professor of the philosophy of law and the law of nations. He also taught Austrian administrative legislature and administrative science and, in 1875, he became full professor and began teaching a wide range of political skills, shaping the first Polish political law system. Since 1884, he was a member of the City Council in Cracow. In 1887, he established the Cracow Law Society. He also worked with the Institute of International Law in Brussels. He was one of the initiators of the 1st Rally of Lawyers and Economists in Cracow. He was involved in the Tatra Society and the Red Cross Society as their vice-chairman. He died on 19 March 1903 in Cracow. Key works: Polish contributions to the shape of international law (1885), The Handbook of Political Law (vol. 1 1888, vol. 2 1894), General political law, including Austrian, with introduction to general state science (vol. 1 1877, vol. 2 1881), The task of the philosophy of law and its status in legal sciences (1888).