B. Oct. 18, 1835, Podgórze (near Dyneburg). The years 1879-1907 he spent abroad, in Switzerland and France; having come across the works of F. Lassalle when in exile, he began to incline towards socialist thought, especially its strand opting for national independence. In 1892 he took part in the founding congress of the Polish Socialist Party (Polska Partia Socjalistyczna, PPS). In 1907, by permission of the then governor M. Bobrzyński, he returned to Galicia, where he was active as a politician, journalist, and scholar. In the independent Poland he twice sat in the Senate (1922, 1928). Wrote the voluminous Historia powstania narodu polskiego 1863 i 1864 r. [“History of the Polish Rising in 1863 and 1864”, 1882], Historia demokracji polskiej w epoce przedrozbiorowej [“History of Polish Democracy in the Pre-Partition Era”, 1901], Stuletnia walka narodu polskiego o niepodległość [“The Century-Long Struggle of the Polish Nation for Independence”, 1906], Rozwój polskiej myśli socjalistycznej [“The Development of Polish Socialist Thought”, 1929], and many important works in political thought (Socjalizm, demokracja, patriotyzm [“Socialism, Democracy, Pariotism”], 1903; Demokracja w Polsce [“Democracy in Poland”], 1903; Naród a państwo [“Nation and State”], 1906). D. Feb. 1, 1935, Warsaw.
This website is a part of the project entitled ‘Polish Political Thought and Independence: A Program for the Promotion of Polish Intellectual Heritage Abroad’, generously funded by the Ministry of Foreign Affairs of the Republic of Poland as A part of ‘Public Diplomacy 2017’ programme, component ‘Collaboration in the field of Public Diplomacy 2017’.